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Mars: Facts & Figures
Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Average Distance from the Sun
Metric: 227,936,640 km
English: 141,633,260 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.2793664 x 108 km (1.523662 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.524 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 206,600,000 km
English: 128,400,000 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.066 x 108 km (1.381 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.404 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 249,200,000 km
English: 154,900,000 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.492 x 108 km (1.666 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.638 x Earth
Equatorial Radius
Metric: 3,397 km
English: 2,111 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.397 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.5326 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 21,344 km
English: 13,263 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.1344 x 104 km
Volume
Metric: 163,140,00,000 km3
Scientific Notation: 1.6314 X 1011 km3
By Comparison: 0.150 x Earth
Mass
Metric: 641,850,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 6.4185 x 1023 kg
By Comparison: 0.10744 x Earth
Density
Metric: 3.94 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.714 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 144,100,000 km2
English: 89,500,000 square miles
Scientific Notation: 1.441 x 108 km2
By Comparison: 0.282 x Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity
Metric: 3.693 m/s2
English: 12.116 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 18,072 km/h
English: 11,229 mph
Scientific Notation: 5.02 x 103 m/s
By Comparison: Escape velocity of Earth is 25,022 mph.
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
1.026 Earth days
24.62 hours
By Comparison: Earth's rotation period is 23.934 hours.
Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year)
1.8807 Earth years
686.93 Earth days
Mean Orbit Velocity
Metric: 86,871 km/h
English: 53,979 mph
Scientific Notation: 24,130.9 m/s
By Comparison: 0.810 x Earth
Orbital Eccentricity
.0934
By Comparison: 5.59 x Earth
Orbital Inclination to Ecliptic
1.8 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
25.19
Orbital Circumference
Metric: 1.366,900,000 km
English: 849,400,000 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.3669 x 109 km
By Comparison: 1.479 x Earth
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -87 to -5 °C
English: -125 to 23 °F
Scientific Notation: 186 to 268 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon
Scientific Notation: CO2, N2, Ar
By Comparison: CO2 is responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA. Ar is used to make blue neon light blubs.
Mars's Moons
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