Copyright Information

For most pages contained in this web site, the original copyright owner is indicated on the page, or next to the link to the page.

In some cases specific permission to use material for educational purposes has been granted to UCL by the copyright owner. If you wish to use such material, other than for personal use, then contact the copyright owner to request permission.

All other information on this web site is Copyright © 1999-2019 University College London.

These pages were originally designed by Dugan Witherick, 2001 and Merrik Bousfield, 2002. Astronomy Information and Diffraction Effects pages by Merrik Bousfield, 2002. Mathematics Notes by Dr Bill Somerville (UCL). Modifications, updates and Hubble Ultra Deep Field page by William Reece, 2003, 2004 and Deb Baker, 2005. Design and encoding revised by Benedict O'Donnell, 2006. Updated by Chris Dolding, 2007 and 2008.

Production supervision, maintenance, and editorial control by  Dr Mike Dworetsky of ULO with the collaboration of the teaching team for the UCL Certificate of Higher Education in Astronomy.

Details for Specific Sections

Royal Greenwich Observatory Leaflets

Permission for University College London to include material on this site has been granted by the Royal Greenwich Observatory (ROG). However we recommend that you visit the original web site where the material will be more up to date.

Spectral Sequence of Stars

Permission to include this page has been obtained from John Talbot. The original page is no longer available.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

The use of any material from NASA web sites must be strictly informational or educational and must not show NASA endorsement of any product.

European Space Agency (ESA)

One can freely use ESA images and pages as long as it is not for commercial use. One cannot modify any of the images, and must acknowledge that they come from ESA.


The SWAS pages are used with permission and are copyright of the SWAS Science Operation Centre at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, part of the Harvard-Smithsonian CFA.


The SIRTF pages are copyright of NASA, JPL and Caltech, and are used with permission (free for educational purposes) according to the Spitzer copyright notice.


ISO pages are free from copyright for educational use, and used with permission. Pages are credited to ESA/ ISO and STFC (previously CCLRC).

Danjon Scale

The creator of the Danjon scale image is unknown, although a significant effort has been made to locate them. Please contact us if you are the copyright holder of this image.

Pierre Auger Observatory

The pages from the Pierre Auger Observatory are used with permission.

Durham University

Pages from the Very High Energy (VHE) Gamma Ray Astronomy Group, based at Durham University are used with permission.

Santa Barbara Instruments Group

SBIG CCDOps software and instructions courtesy of Santa Barbara Instruments Group.

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